Stellar Geography
Copyright 2012 Stellar Geography. All rights reserved.
Throne and Footstool
In CMA:2 the selected symbolic images of terrestrial geography have been projected or inscribed upon the positional
sky map, images still with us today, having been handed down from remote times and still familiar as those of the forty
eight Classical Constellations of Antiquity - for example the Ram of Aries, Bull of Taurus, Twins of Gemini. In
CMA:3 the
stars bounded in each of these projected images are connected with lines, like dots on paper, forming the stick figures
of the constellations still used today - for instance, in navigational maps of the U.S. Navy.

The CMA depicts the stars of the current epoch (2000 CE) in fixed positions over the earth. More precisely, it depicts
the stars of the 48 classic constellations over the 48 geographic areas of their iconographic twins. The stars
encompassed by certain geographic regions (or features) were, apparently, permanently grouped (‘constellated’)
under the names and symbolic images of those regions, forming a set of 48 pairs of twin constellations; one twin
celestial, the other terrestrial. That the two sets of images are in reality one set of deliberately matched (visually similar
or verbally homonymous) pairs rests on a statistical basis, on the number of acknowledged pairs of twin images, not
upon any preconceived notions as to how, why, when, where, and by whom these images came into existence. But
simply on the percentages, on the fact that a very large percentage (maybe 75%) of the images are easily seen to be
visually or verbally similar; or for our purposes - twins; and the probability is almost zero that such a high percentage of
sequential pairs could have arisen by chance.

That the CMA seems to be synchronized to the present age (Epoch 2,000 CE, the dawn of the astronomical age of
Aquarius) is a mystery we hope to address a little later on, though we shall try to show that the map originated
sometime in the Neolithic period, perhaps even the Late Ice Age.

In this manuscript we shall indulge in all sorts of (hopefully) entertaining and controversial speculation about a multitude
of issues collateral to the presentation of the paired images. In the final analysis (repeating our comments in the
preface for added emphasis), the author urges the reader to ignore what he and others have to say about the images
per se and cleave to the fact that, after all, 48 pairs of matched images will have been seen and, it is our contention –
recognized as such. The mere fact that such a pairing of images exists, if indeed this is hypothesis finds support, would
seem to be a circumstance or 'fait accompli' implying a deliberate act by unknown cartographers sometime in the
remote past.

In addition to the sequence of 48 pairs of ‘twin’ images, or constellations, 48 above with 48 below, there exist a large set
of homonymous star names (astronyms) and place names (toponyms). This phenomenon seems to complicated by
variations due precession and the consequent changing of zenith stars over cultural centers and strategic bodies of
land and water, and the ancient navigational practice of attaching place names to the names of zenith stars and vice

We would like to be clear that we are relying, not on formal proofs that such a sequence of matched pairs exists - for at
this time we cannot accomplish such a feat of skill - but rather we are trusting that the similitude or twinning of images
and names will be self-evidently true to both eye and common sense. This type of argument is quite alien to most
academics in our present age and we therefore neither court nor expect the interest of mainstream 'experts', nor their
agreement  with the premise that terrestrial geography is behind celestial iconography. But we do expect a favorable
response from lay students and armchair researchers, from observers with no vested economic or professional
interests, and who therefore do not habitually dismiss the obvious where it contradicts entrenched attitudes. It is to
these free thinkers that this manuscript is really dedicated.

Now let's look at a few examples of twin or paired constellations that hopefully will induce an immediate experience of
natural associative, comparative, and synthetic processes, processes that seem to have been at work in the perception
of familiar images in abstract geographic forms, and in the wedding of terrestrial iconography with the celestial sphere.
The same processes will be called upon during the course of our discussion and on them much will depend. In the short
run – that is, if and until, the evidence can be more rigorously tested – comparison and generalization, along with
intuition tempered by reason and common sense are the best tools available. ‘If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck,
and quacks like a duck, it’s probably a duck.’
In Figure 1, the stars across the Congo Basin are connected like dots and form a part of the constellation Eridanus. In
Greek myth, Phaeton, son of Helios, plunged into the River Eridanus upon losing control of the steeds drawing his
father’s chariot. Scholars are still perplexed as to the terrestrial counterpart of Eridanus, and have long attempted to
connect the story with historical events. However, as far as we know, no one has seriously suggested it might be a
reflection of the Congo Basin, Great Lakes region, and the Zambezi and Limpopo Basins.
CMA 1: Transparency of Positional Star Map Superimposed on Global Map
CMA 2.  Images of Geographic Features Inscribed upon Positional Star Map
CMA 3. Stick Figures of Celestial Constellations Inscribed on Transparency of Star Map
Figure 1. Stars of Eridanus over the Congo River Basin
The images of the Classical Constellations (e.g., ram-Aries, bull-Taurus, bear-Ursa Major) handed down to us from
antiquity appear to be projections of terrestrial geography onto the stars of the celestial sphere. It is as if some ancient
cartographer superimposed of map of the stars in a single fixed position upon a geographic map of the earth, and then
used symbolic images of certain large scale geographic features (depicted on the earth map) to circumscribe or bound
the stars above them (on the sky map) - in this way binding or grouping (i.e. constellating) the various stars
circumscribed by each image-feature (e.g. Ram-Arabia, Bull-Sahara, Leo-South America) into the familiar constellations
known to us from the very dawn of the historical period. Hereafter we shall call this hypothetical combination or
superimposition of earth and sky maps the 'Composite Map of Antiquity' or the CMA.

CMA:1 illustrates what such an overlay might look like, the dots being the stars on the otherwise transparent overlay of
the positional star map.

Map of Antiquity' (CMA).