Stellar Geography
Copyright 2012 Stellar Geography. All rights reserved.
Figure 2 is a straightforward depiction of the Amazon River Basin under the guise of the water serpent Hydra. The
head of the serpent is found with its cluster of stars at the river mouth; its body flows southwest through the Amazon
Basin and on into the Pacific to Easter Island, pretty much following the Nazca Ridge.
Throne and Footstool
As we have seen already, the other celestial river, Eridanus, follows the Congo Basin, Great Lakes region, and Zambezi
River Basin. Like Hydra, it too passes into the southern oceans on a zigzag course among disparate islands and atolls.
Eridanus terminates close to the Kerguelen Islands, while Hydra passes within two or three degrees of Easter Island. Is
it just by chance that the two celestial rivers, Hydra and Eridanus, are so neatly congruent with Amazon and Congo,
and each trace submarine features and sea routes far into the southern Pacific and western Indian Oceans?

It must be emphasized that the Composite Map, in a single alignment, places these two great celestial rivers, as well as
the other celestial constellations, over their geographic iconographic twins in a manner too precise to admit chance.
Once the fiducial alignment of superimposed maps is chosen (the rationale for a single fiducial alignment of the maps
will be discussed elsewhere), the process of inscribing symbolic images of selected terrestrial figures onto a Composite
Map would result in two series of figures; one terrestrial, the other celestial. Thus, each inscription would delimit,
encompass, or circumscribe a specific region of the earth, as well as a corresponding region of the sky. So, each
inscribed image defines – in fact, creates – twin constellations, as it were, one terrestrial, and its celestial mirror image.  

If the stars grouped according to observable terrestrial, geographic features are called constellations, and then why not
call the terrestrial features corresponding to these star formations constellations too? We shall take the liberty of calling
these terrestrial figures ‘constellations’ too, and in order to avoid mind-numbing repetition, we shall, from time to time,
also use the term “terreform”   to denote these geographic constellations.

In other words, in creating the Composite Map, you first superimpose the star field as a mere group of points or dots on
the surface of the earth, in fixed or geostationary positions. Next, you decide to connect 10 or 15 stars tracing the
course of the Congo Rivkiier. The act of connecting the stars superimposed above the earthly Congo (on the
Composite Map) creates twin constellations in a single stroke, the celestial and terrestrial Congos.

The earthly Congo would not be viewed as a “terrestrial constellation” unless it was associated with a celestial
counterpart. If the mapmakers had chosen (if it were a matter of choice) not to trace the course of the Congo with a
specific group of stars (like those of the constellation Eridanus), neither the Congo nor Eridanus would exist as
constellations in the system we are presenting. The Congo River and the stars comprising the constellation of Eridanus
would of course exist, but not as features chosen to make a matched pair of celestial and terrestrial constellations. If
the constellations of the sky and earth were created in the manner we are proposing, then the celestial constellations
can not be understood, nor would they exist at all, apart from their terrestrial counterparts, and vice versa.

Upon completion of the inscription of the 48 images on the superimposed maps (that is, after matching up some 48 star-
groups with 48 terreforms), a composite map like the CMA would be the result. But since we have inherited from the
ancient cartographers only the sky map, notwithstanding its terrestrial based iconography, evidently at some point after
completion of the CMA, a stand-alone sky map, including the 48 celestial constellations (images of their corresponding)
terreforms, was abstracted from the Composite. So the  ancient 48 constellations and their often-described ‘fanciful’
images are seemingly the descendants of such a stand-alone sky map. In ancient times,  anyone on the ‘outside’
gazing upon the naked stellar images would have had no inkling of their terrestrial origins or analogues, no inkling
whatsoever that they were, in fact, looking at a map of the earth as well as of the sky.

We have briefly sketched the outline of a system by which the celestial constellations could have been established, one
that involves the superimposition an accurate sky map over an earth map, and the inscription on the transparency of
the sky, of the symbolic images of (and above) 48 corresponding geographic features.

By implication, such a process as described could only have been undertaken after the completion of numerous
surveys of the entire planet and sky, equal in accuracy to those today. Further, such surveys would have to have been
conducted sometime in the prehistoric era, since so many stellar constellations can be traced to the dawn of recorded
history (circa 3000 BCE).

It is worth emphasizing that the two series of constellations can be brought simultaneously into near congruence by
one, and only one, alignment of the Composite Map. The global congruence achieved in the Composite Map prohibits a
multitude of fanciful alignments, varying from inscription to inscription. Rather, it demands a single fixed relationship
between the maps of sky and earth. One fixed alignment of the two maps, the sky map epoch 2000 CE, is the source of
all CMA illustrations presented in this manuscript. The two maps, earth and sky, have not been adjusted willy-nilly to
bring this or that pair of twins into proximity. For these reasons, we refer to the CMA here presented as the ‘archetypal’
composite – for composite maps may be constructed meaningfully for other eras (see the pair Andromeda).

In the end, after we survey the entire set of 48 paired images; it should become obvious that the people who made the
Composite Map had a navigational and cartographic knowledge of all continents, major rivers, and oceans. They
recorded their mastery of geodesy, geography, positional and cyclic astronomy, circadian medicine, architecture,
history, and religion in the sky maps and sky lore depicted in the megalithic observatories and monumental temple
complexes scattered about the face of the planet, artifacts central to almost every ancient culture known to history.

So far, we have talked only of the stick figures of the constellations, and not their iconography. But in addition to pairs
of twins, constellations with their terreforms, that demonstrate a literal, sometimes geometric similitude or congruence
(like the Congo and Eridanus), other pairs of twins share a more complex iconography based on imaginative


Abstract forms like many large-scale natural features often suggest familiar forms to the observer. ‘Seeing’ images in
passing clouds, flickering firelight, vegetation, or a mountainside is something most everyone can remember from
childhood. It seems to be a universal capacity of human nature, though mostly a subconscious process in adults.

In the modern era, a test based on the capacity to freely associate images with abstract forms was widely used in the
field of psychology.

"Another type of personality test, the projective test, requires individuals to tell what certain images mean to them. In a
Rorschach test, for example, a person describes what he or she sees in a number of standardized inkblots.  A trained
counselor can often recognize behavioral tendencies in these descriptions.  Psychologists use personality tests as
clues for further study of an individual.  They do not regard them as conclusive evidence about the individual's

In terms of the creation of the CMA, a map of the earth was the inkblot that elicited imaginal associations. The capacity
to see familiar images in abstract forms, especially in natural features and their representations on maps, is of
fundamental importance to appreciating this manuscript. This is because we are proposing that this very capacity was
involved in the origination of the celestial images that have been passed down over the ages; that associative images
of discrete terrestrial features were imposed in fixed locations on the celestial sphere, bounding the stars within them
into particular groups (constellations). The image of the Winged Sea Horse, Pegasus, will be seen to have been a
suggestion of Malaysia / Sundaland / Indonesia. Similarly, the lion of Leo is the suggested image of the South American
In Figure 3, Lepus the Hare, is perched aside the coast of Southwest Africa, so can be seen as a very specific
reference to the Walvis Ridge off the coast of Namibia and Angola. The ridge clearly traces the unmistakable profile of
a hare's back, from hindquarters on the coast to ears standing alert in the southwest.

Those who have forgotten this type of imaginative experience, or cannot see the correspondence between the images
of the sky and the corresponding terrestrial features, will fail to be impressed. Of the readers able to recognize many
instances of like images, some will naturally desire additional supportive evidence beyond what is presented in this
work. Others may still not be able to seriously entertain the idea that terrestrial geography could be behind celestial
iconography. Perhaps some will feel that such congruence argues for an original set of twin (celestial with terrestrial)
constellations, and is sufficient evidence of a premeditated act by a scientifically sophisticated culture sometime in the
prehistoric era. In any event, all that can be done at this time is to merely set out the images and let them speak for
themselves. They have persuasiveness in and of themselves that reckons well with the purely rational.

To repeat the truism once more, ‘a picture is worth a thousand words’.

As already indicated, most of the various illustrations presented herein are extracted from the ‘archetypal’ alignment of
the Composite Map. Two synchronizations suffice to bring the series of twin stellar and terrestrial constellations into
their greatest common proximity; specifically, the six-hour circle of the Celestial Sphere (epoch 2000)  with the prime
meridian (Greenwich), and Polaris with the north geographic pole. Let us reiterate that in calling this particular
syncrhonization of the earth and sky maps an ‘archetypal’ alignment we mean simply that it is the single alignment that
brings the series of celestial and terrrestrial twins,
en mass, into the highest degree of one-to-one proximity.
Figure 2. Stars of Hydra over Amazon River Basin
Figure 3. Lepus and the Walvis Ridge