Perseus and Andromeda
Stellar Geography

COMMENTARY

At the left is the constellation Perseus, while on the right is V-shaped Andromeda. The Persian Empire reached from
Macedon to the Indus and the earlier Median Empire encompassed the area from eastern Anatolia (Turkey) to
Kandahar (Afghanistan). Perseus is often depicted holding a sword and either a shield or the severed head of Medusa.

Together Persia and Andromeda span the lands of the ancient Persians and Medes. Perseus was the father of Perses,
from whom the Persians trace their descent. The ancient Medes 'were of Iranian stock', and were conquered by the
Persians in the 6th century B.C. The celestial images emphasize, by congruence and cognation, cultural regions in
addition to strictly geographic ones. Finally, Andromeda could be spelled more precisely, 'Indromeda', to reflect the
Indus Valley civilization.

Notes from William Tyler Olcott, Star Lore of All Ages:
“Some claim Andromeda was an Ethiopian Negress. E.M. Plunket thinks the constellation originated about 3500 BC,
while Allen holds it to have originated far earlier than classical times in the valley of the Euphrates.”

Olcott notes that Sappho (Greek poetess, c. 7th century BC) refers to Andromeda, and that Euripedes and Sophocles
wrote dramas about her. He mentions there is some ground for a date of 6000 BC for her origination but does not
elaborate.

The coast of Palestine was referred to anciently as ‘the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia’ – that is, as 'Andromeda'.
Cepheus means ‘stone’, and Andromeda was a term used by Phoenicians, which meant 'long coast’, ‘chain’, or ‘ridge'.
On another tack Olcott notes that the Phoenicians painted the figure of a winged horse on the stern of their barks along
with a horseman bearing the symbols of the arms of the city of Sais – the Head of Medusa. In the vernacular, a
Phoenician bark was called a 'Perseus' meaning runner or horseman.

We note the possibility that the word 'ship' is derived from Greek 'hippo' (horse) and perhaps has the meaning of 'sea-
horse' or 'horse of the sea'. This, we believe, throws a fresh light on the obscure association of the horse with
Phoenician sea faring, and with the god of sea faring himself, Poseidon (Neptune).
Figure 2. Positions of Perseus and Andromeda c. 10,000 BCE
Andromeda, an Ethiopian princess, was chained to the rocks at Joppa on the coast of the Levant, where she awaited
the coming of the terrible sea-monster Cetus (Kraken). Figure 2 shows the declinations of Perseus-Andromeda in the
precessional cycle c. 10,000 BCE). At that time we find Andromeda chained to the Somali Horn rather than the
Levantine coast. Noteworthy are the river and town (not shown) nearby her stars, both named Juba, in the southern
Somali Horn. Cassiopeia, mother of Andromeda and queen of Ethiopia, can be seen hovering above her sovereign
country. Her husband, Cepheus, mortal king of Ethiopia, is here not far above his country and nearly at zenith in
Greece. In central Africa, Perseus lies opposite coastal Andromeda.
Figure 3. Constellations of Perseus-Andromeda Cycle Epoch 2000.
In Figure 3 we have the stars as they are on the Composite Map (where they are today at the onset of the Age of
Aquarius). We find that Cetus has arrived (precessionally speaking) at Andromeda's former position on the Somali
Horn, while Andromeda has seemingly flown north with Perseus.

“But Phineus was not the kind of man who would listen to that sort of talk, and so the spear that he did not dare to hurl
against the sea-monster he threw against its slayer. That is how a great fight started in the royal halls of Cepheus.
Many were killed by Perseus, while the king, feeling the danger, withdrew from the palace.” 1

We see in the passage from Carlos Parada that king Cepheus is said to have withdrawn from 'the palace' (throne of
Ethiopia), and the Composite map (Figure 3) shows that he ascended northward to his Aquarian location over Siberia.
Gamma1 and beta Andromeda mark the Amu' Daryu River and the Hindu Kush. Adhil (xi Andromeda) marks the Altai
Mountains. Gamma and xi mark the feet of the damsel, while her head, the star Alperatz, marks Mt. Everest. Her body
lies on the Tibetan Plateau. In a sense then, even after escaping the rocks in Somalia during the Age of Leo, she is still
chained to the highest rocks in the world in the Aquarian age, the Himalayas. But Cetus will never catch her.

Cetus could not have caught her at Joppa on the Levantine coast, for the sea monster never ascends to those latitudes
during the course of the precessional cycle. We conclude the story of Andromeda chained to the rocks originally
referred to that constellation's appearance at the zenith over Somalia-Ethiopia about 10,000 years ago when
Andromeda was at its lowest point in the precessional cycle. Andromeda's lowest declination in precession (Somalia) is
roughly the highest declination reached by Cetus, a fact that lends support to the idea that the myth refers to events on
the Somali Horn rather than Levantine Coast.

Finally we note the following passage from Carlos Parada to the effect that Ethiopia rather than the Levant, was the
location of events.

"The NEREIDS became quite disappointed when Queen Cassiopea 2 boasted of being better than them. For this
reason Poseidon, who shared their wrath, sent a flood and a monster to invade Ethiopia. Because of this calamity,
Andromeda was exposed as a prey to the monster, and later delivered by Perseus 1." (footnote here)

NOTES
1  Carlos Parada, Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology.
2 William Tyler Olcott, Star Lore of All Ages.  Kessinger Publishing Company (1997) [1911]
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